Crude oil - as petroleum directly out of the ground is called - is a remarkably varied substance, both in its use and composition. Crude oil is formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric zooplankton and algae, which have been settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities under anoxic conditions. It was formed over millions of years from the remains of tiny aquatic plants and animals that lived in ancient seas due to compression and heating of ancient organic materials over geological time. The oldest oil-bearing rocks, date back to more than 600 million years, the youngest being as old as about 1 million years. Although various types of hydrocarbons - molecules made of hydrogen and carbon atoms - form the basis of all crude oils, they differ in their configurations. The chemical structure of petroleum is composed of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. Because of this, petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes. It can be a straw-colored liquid or tar-black solid. Red, green and brown hues are not uncommon
DIESEL GAS & OIL D6, D2
Petroleum derived diesel (known as petro-diesel) is a mixture of straight run product (150 °C and 350 °C) with varying amount of selected cracked distillates and is composed of saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n , iso , and cycloparaffins), and aromatic hydrocarbons (including napthalenes and alkylbenzenes). Diesel is used in diesel engines, a type of internal combustion engine. Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use coal dust as a fuel, but oil proved more effective. Diesel engines are used in cars, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.
Automotive diesel fuel serves to power trains, buses, trucks, automobiles, farm machinery, to run construction and industrial sites, petroleum drilling and other off-road equipment and to be the prime mover in a wide range of power generation & pumping applications. The diesel engine is high compression, self-ignition engine.
Fuel is ignited by the heat of high compression and no spark plug is used.Important characteristics are ignition characteristics, handling at low temperat
BLEND CRUDE OIL
Crude Oil – is extracted from the earth through oil wells. Color of crude oil is usually black, but sometimes the color may vary, for example, it can be yellowish or slightly transparent – all of these properties depend on the ratio of carbohydrates in the crude oil.
The structure consists of a complex mixture of organic matter and carbon. Oil Research Institute found more than five hundred of complex chemical constituents.List of constituent parts, which are part of crude oil:
Carbohydrates – 90%
Oxygen – 0 to 1%
Hydrogen – from 10 to 15%
Sulphur – 0.1 to 3.0%
Nitrogen – from 0.1 to 0.5%
In composition, each grade of crude oil may have a difference somewhere percentage of sulfur or nitrogen will be more. The composition of crude oil can contain special light materials, which tend to evaporate quickly. There are also varieties of oil, which are substances with a weight, such as a substance like bitumen.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS
Natural gas is cooled after removal of impurities to the condensing temperature (-161,5 C) , turns into a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). The volume of gas liquefaction decreases to 600 times, which is one of the main advantages of this technology.
LNG is produced by the so-called Liquefaction plants (factories) and can then be transported in special cryogenic tanks – marine tankers or tanks for land transport. This allows you to deliver the gas to areas that are far away from the main pipelines, traditionally used to transport conventional natural gas.
Natural gas in liquid form long shelf that allows you to create reserves . Before delivery directly to the consumer of LNG is returned to its original gaseous state at regasification terminals.
The first attempts to liquefy natural gas for industrial purposes refer to the beginning of the XX century. In 1917, the U.S. got the first LNG, but the development of pipeline systems deliver far delayed improvement of the technology. In 1941, another attempt was made to produce LNG, but industrial-scale production has reached only the mid-1960s.
In Russia, the construction of the first LNG plant began in 2006 have taken various steps to implement its strategic goal – to become a leader among global energy companies by entering new markets, diversifying activities, and ensuring security of supply. LNG plant at this point is particularly important, as it will expand the geography of “Gazprom” and enter the global LNG market. The ceremonial opening of the plant took place in the winter of 2009. Mazut M100 GOST 10585-75/99 Mazut M100 is a residue of the primary distillation of crude oil and can be used as boiler fuel – light oil (above 330 ? C), as well as raw materials, processed in the subsequent oil fractions to tar, which is used in the production of oil – heavier oil (above 360 C).
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on the physical and chemical properties is a high grade fuel for automobile engines. major components of the CIS – propane and butane, which is a by-product of oil refining and gas-gasoline plant.
The gas mixes well with air to form a homogeneous fuel-air mixture, provides a high heating value, does not detonate when burned. In a gas, the minimum content of substances that contribute to carbon deposition polluting power system, as well as corrosive parts. During the combustion of gaseous fuel mixture of hazardous substances released into the atmosphere is formed minimal amount. The CIS consists mainly propane and butane, and ethane, ethylene butylene pentanes. Their total number in relation to the main fraction of gas (propane and butane) does not exceed 5-6%.LPG components let you create the properties of gaseous fuel engine. while stirring propane guarantees an optimum vapor pressure of the gas mixture, which is particularly important for the operation of gas-cylinder vehicles in various climatic conditions and at different times of the year. Therefore, propane is a desirable component of the CIS.Bhutan is one of high calorific value and is easily combustible components of the CIS. However, due to the low vapor pressure butane in our country in its pure form as a fuel is not used. Experience in operating gas-cylinder cars showed that the ratio of the CIS propane to butane in the winter should be 70-75% higher than in the summer.Liquefied petroleum gas is colorless and odorless, so for safety when used in cars give him the special smell – odoriruyut. In our time, a measure of the quality of fuel octane number, which measures detonation resistance of hydrocarbon gases. The higher the octane rating of the fuel, means it is more resistant to detonation. For most of the main components of the gas octane number of 100-115, that is higher than the best grades of gasoline.
The quality of fuel and oil, of course, greatly affects the reliability and service life of any engine. In a diesel engine, this same relationship is expressed most severely: for high pressure and high loads determined. To counter them, the details should be lubricated with high-quality oil. Here you can expect anything, including – and a sharp increase in pressure in the cylinder. And then even good oil will protect parts from wear and damage. So, to fuel for diesel requirements are as high than to oil.
The combustion in the cylinder of a diesel engine is most clearly characterized by the indicator diagram showing the dependence of the pressure in the cylinder from the crank angle. Type of indicator diagram depends on many factors determined by the engine design (type combustion chamber, injection pressure). performance (speed, temperature, angle of injection), grade of fuel and its fractional composition.
Dependence of the viscosity of diesel fuel temperature.
Therefore, the most correct to apply the so-called depressor additives, especially in the off-season, when it is likely the lack of winter fuel at a gas station. We, unfortunately, there are cases where, despite the assurances of gas station workers that Winter Fuel in tanks still gets the summer or, at best, a mixture of summer and winter fuel. This is typical for the first few weeks of cold weather. So be careful not to get yourself unnecessary problems.
Sulfur, water and mechanical impurities. The bulk of the fuel produced from sulfur crudes, as low-sulfur reserves are limited. When refining the principal amount of sulfur compounds distilled with factions, going for a diesel.
Further reduction in the amount of sulfur in the fuel is complicated and expensive ways, basically, hydrotreating, so getting the low-sulfur fuel is difficult, and often not very profitable for the manufacturer.
straight run gasoline (naphtha);
diesel fuel of Euro-5 standard (DT-L-K5);
gas condensate distillates;
After the commissioning of the combined high octane gasoline reforming unit the range of products will be extended with high octane gasolines of Euro-5 standard A-92 and A-95.